La creencia en Dios, apostasía y la pena de muerte (1/3) – Believing in God, apostasy, and death penalty (1/3).

De acuerdo al diccionario Merriam-Webster la palabra apostasía se define como: 1. renunciación de una fe religiosa. 2. abandono a una lealtad previa. Esta, viene del Latín apostasia, que proviene del Griego y literalmente significa revuelta.

El pasado 3 de mayo del 2012, el Parlamento kuwaití aprobó una ley que estipula la pena de muerte para musulmanes que maldigan o se burlen de Dios, del Santo Libro islámico, de todos los profetas o de las esposas del Profeta Mahoma. La misma pena sería aplicada a todos aquellos que “se describieran así mismos como nuevos profetas o mensajeros de Dios”. Asimismo, si el acusado es un no-musulmán la pena se reduciría a no más de 10 años de prisión, según informara el diario digital Al-Arabiya en su versión Inglesa.

Parece ser que el móvil que ha llevado a endurecer  las penas por crímenes religiosos sucedió después que en el pasado mes de Marzo las autoriades arrestaran a un “Twitero” shíita por alegadamente maldecir al Profeta Mahoma, su esposa y algunos de sus compañeros.

Según las estadísticas demográficas, cerca del 85% de la población en Kuwait se identifican como musulmanes: siendo un 60% sunnis y un 40% shiitas. La mayoría de los shiitas siguen la escuela de pensamiento Doceava. Aunque el Islam es la religión estatal, entre los ciudadanos no-kuwaitíes, el país tiene una gran comunidad de Cristianos (entre 300,000 a 400,000), Hindúes (entre 300,000), Budistas (entre 100,000) y Sikhs (entre 10,000). Sin embargo, el Islam es la única religión entre los árabes kuwaitíes.

Kuwait tiene un ingreso per capita de US$81,800, haciendo de éste el 5to país más rico en el mundo, per capita. De acuerdo a Indices de Economía y Libertad del 2008, Kuwait tiene la segunda economía libre en el Medio Oriente. En Marzo del 2007, las reservas en el extranjeron alcanzaron los US$218 Billones. La Bolsa de Cambio de Kuwait, la cual cuenta con 200 firmas, es la segunda más grande en el mundo árabe con una capitalización de mercado de US$235 Billones. En el 2007, el gobierno de Kuwait tuvo un excedente de US$43 Billones.

De igual forma, Kuwait tiene reservas de crudo por 104 Billones de barriles (15 km3), lo cual ha sido estimado como el 10% de las reservas del mundo. De acuerdo a la constitución, todos los recursos naturales del país e ingresos asociados son propiedad del gobierno. Siendo un país libre de impuesto, la  industria petrolera reporta un 80% de los ingresos del gobierno. El petróleo y los petroquímicos reportan cerca de la mitad del PIB y el 95% de las ganancias de exportación. El incremento en los precios del petróleo desde el 2003 dió como resultado un aumento de la economía de Kuwait.

Kuwait tiene una monarquía constituída y posee el más antiguo de los parlamentos directamente elegidos entre los estados árabes del Golfo Pérsico.  Actualmente, se encuentra bajo el reino de la familia Al Sabah. El jefe de estado lo constituye el Emir o Sheikh, como oficial heredero. Un consejo de ministros, también conocidos como ministros de gabinete, asisten al Primer Ministro, quien coloca y destituye diplomáticos. El Poder Legislativo es investido por el Emir y la Asamblea Nacional de acuerdo con la Constitución. El Emir puede disolver la Asamblea Nacional y llamar a elecciones nacionales o en caso de emergencia nacional puede destituir la Asamblea de inmediato y asumir la autoridad suprema sobre el país. El Emir es el comandante en armas de las fuerzas armadas y tiene la autoridad de otorgar el perdón en caso de pena de muerte o de prisión.

English

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary  the word apostasy is defined as: 1.  renunciation of a religious faith. 2. abandonment of a previous loyalty and it comes from Late Latin apostasia, from Greek, literally, revolt.

On May 3rd 2012 the Kuwait Parliament passed a bill stipulating the dealth penalty for Muslims  who curse or mock God, the Muslim holy book, all prophets, and the wives of Islam’s Prophet Mohammed. The same punishment is applied to those who describe themselves as new prophets or messengers from God.” Likewise,  if the acused is a non-Muslim, the punishment would be lowered to jail for no more than 10 years, according to Al-Arabiya online news in its English version.

The move to stiffen penalties for religious crimes came after authorities in March arrested a Shi’ite tweeter for allegedly cursing the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), his wife and some companions.

According to demographic statistics,  about 85% of the population in Kuwait identify themselves as Muslims: being 60%  Sunnis and 40%  Shias.  Majority of the Shias follow the Twelvers school. Despite Islam being the state religion, among the non-Kuwaiti citizens, the country has a large community of Christians (est. 300,000 to 400,000),  Hindus (est. 300,000), Budhist  (est. 100,000), and Sikhs (est. 10,000). However, the sole religion of Kuwaiti Arabs is Islam.

Kuwait has an income per capita  of US$81,800, making it the 5th richest country in the world, per capita. According to the 2008, Index of Economic Freedom, Kuwait has the second-most free economy in the Middle East. In March 2007, Kuwait’s foreign exchange reserves stood at US$213 billion. The Kuwait Stock Exchange, which has about 200 firms listed, is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world with a total market capitalization of US$235 billion. In 2007, the Kuwaiti government posted a budget surplus of US$43 billion.

Also, Kuwait has proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels (15 km³), estimated to be 10% of the world’s reserves. According to the Kuwaiti constitution, all natural resources in the country and associated revenues are government property. Being a tax-free country, Kuwait´s oil industry accounts for 80% of government revenue. Petroleum and petrochemicals accounts for nearly half of GDP and 95% of export revenues. Increase in oil prices since 2003 resulted in a surge in Kuwait’s economy.

Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy and has the oldest directly elected parliament among the Arab States of the Persian Gulf. Currently the country is under the reign of the Al Sabah family. The head of state is the Emir or Sheikh, a hereditary office. A council of ministers, also known as cabinet ministers, aids the Prime Minister, and appoints and dismisses diplomats. Legislative power is vested in the Emir and the National Assembly in accordance with the Constitution. The Emir of Kuwait can dissolve the National Assembly and call a national election, or in cases of national emergency, can dismiss the National Assembly outright and assume supreme authority over the country. The Emir is the commander in chief of Kuwait’s armed forces and has authority to grant pardon from the death penalty or prison.

9 responses to “La creencia en Dios, apostasía y la pena de muerte (1/3) – Believing in God, apostasy, and death penalty (1/3).

  1. Maryam,
    Apostasy and cursing or mocking God are not the same things. So, I did not quite get the connection you were trying to make. Also, I didn’t quite understand your point of bringing up the demographics, wealth and other statistic about Kuwait – how are they connected to your subject:Apostasy. As an American I take personal freedom very seriously, and even though I am Muslim, I don’t think that the government should have anything to say about what a person says or believes. I know this is a contradiction for a Muslim, but that is how I feel. Also, if someone wants to renunciate Islam, they will. If there are laws that are so severe, death penalty. This means that the person will be an Apostate in their heart and live a false life, it doesn’t mean they will remain a pious Muslim.? I prefer that people live honestly, and stay Muslim out of love for their religion, not fear of harsh laws.

    • You know Victoria apostasy as well as mocking God was included in the bill. Also, I included the demographic data, because it was due to a Shiia tweeter´s comments that the bill was passed. So, it is important to know what is the percentage of Shiia population in the country as well as try to understand the whole economy and governmental system to get the whooooole picture of the situation😉 In my next article I will discuss what is the position of the Shariah and Qu´ran, different opinions about it, and how the belief in God has been a subject of death sentence through history in other faiths. At the end, you will get your own conclusions and understand what I meant🙂

      • I see now. This is a great conversation Maryam, thank you for all of your efforts!

      • Thanks to you dear for your support🙂 I´m about to finish the second part which will deal more deeply with the Death Penalty in Islam. You know in trying to collect information, I´ve learnt so many things I ignored. Indeed Allah is the Most Merciful of the Merciful!

  2. The Torah teaches in the Book of Genesis that each nation has the jurisdiction to determine how to enforce the 7 Universal Principles (Genesis 9:6-7). The Torah says that this covenant of GOD and humankind is forever. The 7 principles are:

    1. Belief in ONE GOD
    2. Not to blaspheme GOD’s Name
    3. Not to kill
    4. Not to steal
    5. Not to commit sexual immorality
    6. Not to eat a limb from a live animal
    7. Establish courts of law to promote justice

    If we analyze Sharia Law in general, it conforms to these principles.

    Consider what those countries would be like without law?

    Personally, I believe that as “outsiders” of those cultures, we need to be careful when judging countries that have laws that are not our own.

    Law promotoes justice and abuse of the law promotes corruption.

    Which one do you prefer?

  3. Thanks Yehonatan for your valuable contribution. I just would like to remind you this kind of law we are discussing about pertains to one´s own individual choice to believe or not in God or to consider as sacred or not what a society believes it is.

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